Schottland erreichte bisher zweimal die Endrunde, davon einmal bei acht und. Juli Kunstturnen: Vier Aktive und ein erst jähriger Sportdirektor bei EM in Schottland. Fabian Leimlehner bei den Olympischen Spielen in. 4. Aug. Schwimmen European Championships EM Schottland Deutschland International Großbritannien EM-Gold für Freistil Mixed-Staffel bei.
Work began in , but was soon abandoned, and only the hospital building was eventually remodelled in In , responsibility for the castle was transferred from the War Office to the Office of Works ,  although the garrison remained until , when the troops moved to Redford Barracks in south-west Edinburgh.
The castle was again used as a prison during the First World War, when " Red Clydesider " David Kirkwood was confined in the military prison block, and during the Second World War, when downed German Luftwaffe pilots were captured.
The volcanic Castle Rock offers a naturally defended position, with sheer cliffs to north and south, and a steep ascent from the west.
In front of the castle is a long sloping forecourt known as the Esplanade. Originally the Spur, a 16th-century hornwork , was located here.
The present Esplanade was laid out as a parade ground in , and extended in The Gatehouse at the head of the Esplanade was built as an architecturally cosmetic addition to the castle in The dry ditch in front of the entrance was completed in its present form in In , an alternative access was opened by digging a tunnel from the north of the esplanade to the north-west part of the castle, separating visitor traffic from service traffic.
The new structure was named the Argyle Tower, from the fact that the 9th Earl of Argyll had been held here prior to his execution in Below these is the Low Defence, while at the base of the rock is the ruined Wellhouse Tower, built in to guard St.
The areas to the north and west of the Argyle Tower are largely occupied by military buildings erected after the castle became a major garrison in the early 18th century.
The building to the south of this courtyard is now the National War Museum of Scotland, which forms part of the National Museums of Scotland.
The exhibits also illustrate the history and causes behind the many wars in which Scottish soldiers have been involved. Beside the museum is Butts Battery, named after the archery butts targets formerly placed here.
Beside this, the Lang Stair leads down to the Argyle Battery, past a section of a medieval bastion,  and gives access to the upper storey of the Argyle Tower.
The oldest building in the castle, and in Edinburgh, is the small St. In , it was "discovered" by the antiquary Daniel Wilson , while in use as part of the larger garrison chapel, and was restored in — The 15th-century siege gun or bombard known as Mons Meg is displayed on a terrace in front of St.
The Half Moon Battery, which remains a prominent feature on the east side of the castle, was built as part of the reconstruction works supervised by the Regent Morton , and was erected between and The tower was rediscovered during routine maintenance work in , and excavations below the Half Moon Battery revealed the extent of the surviving buildings.
Several rooms are accessible to the public, although the lower parts are generally closed. Outside the tower, but within the battery, is a three-storey room, where large portions of the exterior wall of the tower are still visible, showing shattered masonry caused by the bombardment of Crown Square, also known as Palace Yard, was laid out in the 15th century, during the reign of King James III , as the principal courtyard of the castle.
The foundations were formed by the construction of a series of large stone vaults built onto the uneven Castle Rock in the s. These vaults were used as a state prison until the 19th century, although more important prisoners were held in the main parts of the castle.
The Royal Palace comprises the former royal apartments, which were the residence of the later Stewart monarchs. The commemorative painted ceiling and other decoration were added in On the first floor is the vaulted Crown Room, built in to house the Honours of Scotland: To the south of the palace is the Register House, built in the s to accommodate state archives.
The Great Hall measures 29 by It was then restored by Hippolyte Blanc in line with contemporary ideas of medieval architecture. To the south of the hall is a section of curtain wall from the 14th century with a parapet of later date.
In the 16th century, this area housed the kitchens serving the adjacent Great Hall, and was later the site of the Royal Gunhouse. It stands on the site of the medieval St.
It was demolished in , and the masonry reused to build a new North Barrack Block on the site. Construction began in , and the memorial was formally opened on 14 July by the Prince of Wales.
The stained-glass windows are by Douglas Strachan. The memorial commemorates Scottish soldiers, and those serving with Scottish regiments , who died in the two world wars and in more recent conflicts.
Upon the altar within the Shrine, placed upon the highest point of the Castle Rock, is a sealed casket containing Rolls of Honour which list over , names of those soldiers killed in the First World War.
After the Second World War, another 50, names were inscribed on Rolls of Honour held within the Hall, and further names continue to be added there.
Edinburgh Castle is in the ownership of the Scottish Ministers as heads of the devolved Scottish Government. The castle is run and administered, for the most part, by Historic Scotland , an executive agency of the Scottish Government, although the Army remains responsible for some areas, including the New Barracks block and the military museums.
Both Historic Scotland and the Army share use of the Guardroom immediately inside the castle entrance. Historic Scotland undertakes the dual tasks of operating the castle as a commercially viable tourist attraction , while simultaneously bearing responsibility for conservation of the site.
Edinburgh Castle remains the most popular paid visitor attraction in Scotland, with over 1. An educational centre in the Queen Anne Building runs events for schools and educational groups, and employs re-enactors in costume and with period weaponry.
Nevertheless, the castle continues to have a strong connection with the Army, and is one of the few ancient castles in Britain that still has a military garrison, albeit for largely ceremonial and administrative purposes.
Public duties performed by the garrison include guarding the Honours of Scotland , and armed sentries stand watch at the Gatehouse outside opening hours.
The basis of each performance is a parade of the massed pipes and drums of the Scottish regiments , and since its inception in the tattoo has developed a complex format which includes a variety of performers invited from around the world, although still with a largely military focus.
The climax of the evening is the lone piper on the castle battlements, playing a pibroch in memory of dead comrades-in-arms, followed by massed bands joining in a medley of traditional Scottish tunes.
The tattoo attracts an annual audience of around , people, and is broadcast in some 30 countries to a television audience estimated at million.
The original gun was an pound muzzle-loading cannon, which needed four men to load, and was fired from the Half Moon Battery.
This was replaced in by a pound breech-loader , and in May by a pound Howitzer. Although the gun is no longer required for its original purpose, the ceremony has become a popular tourist attraction.
The castle has become a recognisable symbol of Edinburgh, and of Scotland. It also features on the badge of No. It also appears on the " Castle series " of Royal Mail postage stamps , and has been represented on various issues of banknotes issued by Scottish clearing banks.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Edinburgh Castle disambiguation. Edinburgh Castle stands at the head of the Old Town. Prehistoric Scotland and Castle of Maidens.
Scotland in the High Middle Ages. National War Museum of Scotland. Scottish National War Memorial. Royal Edinburgh Military Tattoo. Archived from the original on 14 June Retrieved 30 September City of Edinburgh Council.
Wilson , vol. For further discussion cf. Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies. Calendar of State Papers, Spain.
Calendar of State Papers, Scotland. Retrieved 7 October Retrieved 4 December Retrieved 19 March Archived from the original on 4 June Retrieved 5 June Retrieved 17 December Retrieved 13 June Archived from the original on 29 October Retrieved 24 October Tabraham , p.
Archived from the original on 18 July Retrieved 3 May Office of the Scottish Charity Regulator. Association of Leading Visitor Attractions.
Archived from the original on 13 April Retrieved 4 July Archived from the original on 2 May Archived from the original on 7 October Archived from the original on 8 September Retrieved 16 December Archived from the original on 4 December Archived from the original on 11 June Retrieved 4 March Not that this was much use, for the rounds were blanks as they always have been.
Retrieved 11 March Spitfire Dive-Bombers Versus the V2. Retrieved 4 June The Royal Bank of Scotland". The Committee of Scottish Bankers.
Archived from the original on 2 December Clydesdale Bank World Heritage Series". Archived from the original on 11 December Harpers Handbook to Edinburgh.
Caldwell, David H In Caldwell, David H. Scottish Weapons and Fortifications — Ancient Domestic Architecture of Edinburgh: Edinburgh Castle as before the Siege of The Scottish Castle 3rd ed.
Dictionary of National Biography. Excavations within Edinburgh Castle in Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland.
Geoffrey of Monmouth The History of the Kings of Britain. Gibson, John Sibbald Edinburgh Past And Present. Memorials of the Castle of Edinburgh.
Old and New Edinburgh. A Short History of Edinburgh Castle. Hardie, Alastair M R The Place Names of Edinburgh: Their Origins and History.
Scottish Architecture from the Reformation to the Restoration, — The Architectural History of Scotland. The Work of Sir Robert Lorimer.
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